ࡱ> @bjbj2s2s4HPPh TT"8@$d,%kkk;%=%=%=%=%=%=%$t'*2a%!kkkkka%%k;%k;%V#$@oEg$ '%%0%s$TH*|H*$H*$`kkkkkkka%a%kkk%kkkkH*kkkkkkkkkT( |:AB>@8O :0: B5:AB. @>1;5<K ?5@56820=8O, ?>=8<0=8O, 8AB>;:>20=8O 8AB>@88 (8;LB59, 040<5@) @>1;5<0 ?>=8<0=8O 2 <5B>4>;>388 3C<0=8B0@=KE 8 A>F80;L=KE =0C: =0G0;0 0:B82=> >1AC640BLAO 2 XIX 25:5, >A>15==> 2 =5<5F:>9 D8;>A>D88. -B><C A?>A>1AB2>20;> @0728B85 8AB>@87<0 8 <5B>4>;>388 3C<0=8B0@=KE =0C: (=0C: > 4CE5). >=8<0=85 2 35@<5=52B8:5 . 8;LB5O. 8;L35;L< 8;LB59 (1833 1911), 8AB>@8: :C;LBC@K 8 D8;>A>D (?@54AB028B5;L D8;>A>D88 687=8), ?>;030;, GB> ?@8=F8?80;L=K5 @07;8G8O <564C =0C:0<8 > ?@8@>45 8 =0C:0<8 > 4CE5 70:;NG0NBAO 2 87CG05<KE 8<8 ?@54<5B0E.  >A=>25 :C;LBC@K 8 8AB>@88 ;568B 687=L, :>B>@CN =5;L7O 87CG8BL ?CB5< 0=0;870 55 M;5<5=B>2, :0: MB> 45;05BAO 2 <5E0=8:5, => =C6=> ?>=8<0BL 2 55 F5;>AB=>AB8. >MB><C 2 =0C:0E > 4CE5 >A=>2=K< <5B>4>< O2;O5BAO ?>=8<0=85 ?@54<5B0 2 53> 8=48284C0;L=>9 F5;>AB=>AB8, B>340 :0: 2 =0C:0E > ?@8@>45 ?@8<5=O5BAO <5B>4 >1JOA=5=8O, >A=>2=K< A>45@60=85< :>B>@>3> O2;O5BAO ?>42545=85 >A>15==>3> ?>4 2A5>1I55, >1JOA=5=85 G5@57 70:>=. >G5<C ACI5AB2C5B MB> ?@8=F8?80;L=>5 @07;8G85? AB>@8O 8 :C;LBC@0  MB> B2>@5=85 ;N459, >1CA;>2;5==>5 2@5<5=5< 8 E0@0:B5@>< 8E >B=>H5=89. 1J5:B>< 8AB>@8G5A:>3> ?>7=0=8O O2;ONBAO 8=48284C0;L=K9 E0@0:B5@ ?@>4C:B>2 G5;>25G5A:>9 :C;LBC@K (;535=4, >1KG052, F5==>AB59, ?>ABC?:>2 8 B. ?.), 2 >B;8G85 >B ?>2B>@ONI53>AO >4=>>1@078O 5AB5AB25==>-=0CG=KE >1J5:B>2.  3C<0=8B0@=KE =0C:0E =C6=> 70<5=8BL 01AB@0:B=K5 >1>1I5=8O ?>=8<0=85< 8=48284C0;L=>3> E0@0:B5@0 8AB>@8G5A:8E A>1KB89. @8G8==>5 (:0C70;L=>5) >1JOA=5=85 E0@0:B5@=> 4;O 5AB5AB2>7=0=8O, 4;O :C;LBC@=>-8AB>@8G5A:>3> ?>7=0=8O E0@0:B5@=0 35@<5=52B8:0 - B0: 8;8 8=0G5 B@0:BC5<0O <5B>4>;>38O ?>=8<0=8O (Verstehen). 5@<5=52B8:0 - B5>@8O ?>=8<0=8O 8 8=B5@?@5B0F88 2 "=0C:0E > 4CE5". -B0?K @0728B8O 35@<5=52B8:8: =B8G=0O 35@<5=52B8:0: ?5@52>4-8AB>;:>20=85, 5@<5A 1>3-?>A@54=8:. !@54=525:>20O 35@<5=52B8:0: M:7535B8:0 A2OI5==KE B5:AB>2. >2>5 2@5<O: $@84@8E (;595@<0E5@ (1768-1834) - 35@<5=52B8:0 - <5B>4 D8;>;>30-:;0AA8:0. >=8<0=85 - 2>AA>740=85 B5E <KA;59, 70<KA;>2, :>B>@K5 1K;8 C 02B>@0 ?@>872545=8O (4@52=53> B5:AB0). 20 C@>2=O ?>=8<0=8O - 3@0<<0B8G5A:89 (O7K: 2 H8@>:>< A<KA;5), ?A8E>;>38G5A:89 (2GC2AB2>20=85, A>?5@56820=85). 5@<5=52B8G5A:89 :@C3  B5:AB :0: F5;>5 ?>=8<05BAO G5@57 G0AB8, 0 G0AB8 ?>=8<0NBAO 2 :>=B5:AB5 F5;>3>. 8;LB59 - 18>3@0D (;595@<0E5@0, >A=>2=CN 845N 27O; C =53>. = AB@5<8;AO A>740BL :@8B8:C 8AB>@8G5A:>3> @07C<0. 8;LB59 =5 A>3;0A5= A ?>78B828ABA:>9 @54C:F859 8AB>@8G5A:>3> <8@0 : ?@8@>45 ?@8 ?><>I8 :0C70;L=>9 AE5<K. 3> 70<5B:0 =0 ?>;OE ">38:8" 8;;O: "A=>2=0O >H81:0 8;;O A>AB>8B 2 ?@87=0=88 548=KE 4;O 2A5E =0C: <5B>4>2. 5B>4K 4>;6=K ?@8A?>A01;820BLAO : ?@54<5BC 8 F5;O< A>>B25BAB2CNI8E =0C:". @8@>4C <K >1JOA=O5< - 8AB>@8N ?>=8<05<. > 2545=88 2 =0C:8 > 4CE5 (1883) ?@>2>48B @073@0=8G5=8O =0C: > ?@8@>45 8 =0C: > 4CE5 ?> ?@54<5BC. @54<5B =0C: > ?@8@>45 A>AB02;ONB 2=5H=85 ?> >B=>H5=8N : G5;>25:C O2;5=8O. 0C:8 > 4CE5 70=OBK G5;>25G5A:8<8 ?@>4C:B0<8 8 >B=>H5=8O<8. >A;54=85 - 8<5NB A<KA;. 5 =01;N45=85 2=5H=8E >1J5:B>2 8 >1>1I5=85 D0:B>2 :0: 2 5AB5AB25==KE =0C:0E, 0 2=CB@5==55 ?5@56820=85 =0?@02;ONB 8AB>@8N :0: =0C:C > 4CE5 A 55 :0B53>@8O<8 A<KA;0, F5;8, F5==>AB8 8 ?@. K ?>=8<05< A>F80;L=K5 D0:BK 87=CB@8, >=8 2>A?@>872>48<K 4> 8725AB=>9 AB5?5=8 2=CB@8 =0A =0 >A=>25 A0<>=01;N45=89 8 8=BC8F88. @8@>40, =0?@>B82, <>;G8B. =0 4;O =0A  =5GB> 2=5H=55. 0H <8@  >1I5AB2>. 8;LB59: ">4 ?>=8<0=85< O ?>4@07C<520N ?@>F5AA, 2 :>B>@>< <K 8A?>;L7C5< GC2AB25==> 40==K5 >1J5:B820F88 4;O 4>AB865=8O 7=0=8O 4CE>2=>9 687=8". >=8<0=85 - @0AH8D@>2:0 A<KA;0, A:@KB>3> 2 M<?8@8G5A:8 40==KE 0@B5D0:B0E - >1J5:B820F8OE 4CE>2=>9 687=8 (<0B5@80;L=KE ?0<OB=8:0E, B5:AB0E, ?@>872545=8OE :C;LBC@K, 4>:C<5=B0E 8 B.?.). CE, A>AB>O=8O A>7=0=8O >B@060NBAO 2 65AB0E, A;>20E, >=8 >1J5:B828@CNBAO 2 8=AB8BCB0E 3>AC40@AB20, F5@:28, =0C:8; 8<5==> 2 MB8E A?;5B5=8OE 428305BAO 8AB>@8O. >=8<0=85 - MB> "M<?0B8O", "?5@5=>A" A51O =0 <5AB> 45OB5;O, 02B>@0 4CE>2=KE ?@>4C:B>2. 0@0=B8O ?>=8<0=8O - 687=L - "687=L ?>=8<05B 687=L". K :0: 1K A0<8 - A0<K9 E>@>H89 8=AB@C<5=B ?>7=0=8O. GC2AB2>20=85, M<?0B8O 45;05B 2>7<>6=K< @0A:@KB85 8=>3> 4CE>2=>3> <8@0. >340 O ;8AB0N ?8AL<0 8 A>G8=5=8O NB5@0,  ?8H5B 8;LB59,  @0AA:07K 53> A>2@5<5==8:>2, 0:BK @5;838>7=KE A>1>@>2 2 >D8F80;L=>< 87;>65=88, O 682C MB8<8 A>1KB8O<8, => 2 687=8 8 A<5@B8 MB8 ?@>F5AAK 2KE>4OB 70 ?@545;K 2>7<>6=>AB8 ?>=8<0=8O ;N1>3> G5;>25:0 =0H8E 4=59. A5 65 O, B5< =5 <5=55, <>3C 2=>2L ?5@568BL 8E... / 286C @07@01>B0==CN 2 <>=0ABK@OE B5E=8:C :>=B0:B0 A =52848<K< <8@><, : :>B>@><C CAB@5<;5=K 4CH8 <>=0E>2: B5>;>38G5A:85 A?>@K AB0=>2OBAO 745AL 2>?@>A0<8 2=CB@5==53> ACI5AB2>20=8O. / 286C, :0: 2 <8@C @0A?@>AB@0=ONBAO ?> 15AG8A;5==K< :0=0;0< 0<2>=K, :0D54@K, :=838  2A5 B>, GB> 1K;> @07@01>B0=> 2 <>=0ABK@OE... "0:8< >1@07><, MB>B ?@>F5AA >B:@K205B =0< @5;838>7=K9 <8@ 53> (NB5@0) 8 53> A>@0B=8:>2 =0G0;L=>3> MB0?0 5D>@<0F88. 45 30@0=B8O >1J5:B82=>AB8 ?>=8<0=8O? 20 C@>2=O - =87H89 8 2KAH89. 0 C@>2=5 74@02>3> A<KA;0 - 540, 1KB, @>645=85, A<5@BL - 687=L 548=0 2> 2A5 2@5<5=0. >MB><C =0 MB>< C@>2=5 <K =5?;>E> ?>=8<05< 687=L ;N459 4@C38E M?>E 8 :C;LBC@ 0 2KAH8E C@>2=OE :C;LBC@K (@><0=K, D8;>A>DA:85 B@0:B0BK, :0@B8=K 8 B.?.) 4CE>2=0O 687=L >1J5:B828@C5BAO 3;C1>:> 8 ?>;=>. >MB><C, ?@8<5=OO 35@<5=52B8G5A:85 <5B>4K, <K <>65< 3;C1>:> ?@>=8:=CBL 2 70<KA;K 8 4CE>2=K9 <8@ B2>@F>2 2KA>:>9 :C;LBC@K. 5<5F:89 D8;>A>D %.-. 040<5@ (1900  2002) :@8B8G5A:8 ?5@5>A<KA;8; 8458 8;LB5O 2 >?>@5 =0 B@0:B>2:C ?>=8<0=8O C A2>53> CG8B5;O 0@B8=0 %0945335@0.  D8;>A>DA:>9 35@<5=52B8:5 . %0945335@0 ?>=8<0=85 ?>;CG05B >=B>;>38G5A:CN B@0:B>2:C  >=> AB0=>28BAO ?>=8<0NI8< 1KB85<. @5645 G5< <K =0G8=05< ?>7=020BL <8@, <K C65 @0A?>;>65=K 2 =5<. -B0 87=0G0;L=0O AB@C:BC@0 @0A:@K205BAO 2 ?@54-?>=8<0=88, 7040NI5< 3>@87>=B ?>7=0=8N 8 DC=48@CNI5<, 2 A2>N >G5@54L, ?>=8<0=85 :0: <5B>4 ?>7=0=8O. # .-. 040<5@0 MB8 8458 ?>;CG0NB 45B0;L=CN @07@01>B:C ?@8<5=8B5;L=> : 8AB>@8G5A:><C ?>=8<0=8N 8 ?@>1;5<0B8:5 8AB>;:>20=8O B5:AB>2 . @54?>=8<0=85 C =53> 2KABC?05B =01>@>< ?@54-@0AAC4:>2, >1CA;>2;5==KE 2@5<5=5< 8 O7K:><, ?>4G5@:8205BAO B0:65 206=>ABL B@048F88, 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>9 >ACI5AB2;O5BAO ;N1>5 ?>=8<0=85. >=8<0=85 O2;O5BAO >B:@KBK< 8AB>@8G5A:8< ?@>F5AA><, 2 :>B>@>< 8=B5@?@5B8@CNI89 8 8=B5@?@5B8@C5<>5 C65 2:;NG5=K 2 B@048F8N ?>=8<0=8O. 040<5@ ?>4G5@:8205B, GB> >B=>H5=85 8=B5@?@5B8@CNI53> : B@048F88 2A5340 480;>38G=>5 8 O7K:>2>5.  60-5 3>4K ?@>H;>3> AB>;5B8O <=>3> 48A:CB8@>20;8 > A?5F8D8:5 A>F80;L=KE =0C: 8 AB@>8;8 8E ?> <>45;8 5AB5AB2>7=0=8O. $8;>A>DA:0O 35@<5=52B8:0 2>A?@8=8<0;0AL :0: 0;LB5@=0B82=0O <5B>4>;>38O 3C<0=8B0@=KE =0C:. 50:F8O =0 MBC AF85=B8ABA:CN B5=45=F8N >1>7=0G5=0 2 >A=>2=>9 @01>B5 040<5@0 "AB8=5 8 <5B>45" :0: 2>72@0I5=85 >?KB0 8A:CAAB20, 8AB>@88 8 D8;>A>D88, 81> B0:8< A?>A>1>< 040<5@ E>B5; 48AB0=F8@>20BL A2>N D8;>A>DA:CN 35@<5=52B8:C >B <5B>4>;>38G5A:8E :>=F5?F89 3C<0=8B0@=KE =0C:. = 48A:CB8@C5B =5 > :0:><-=81C4L =0CG=>< <5B>45, 0 > ?@>42865=88 =0 B0:>9 C@>25=L, :>B>@K9 O2;O5BAO, ?> 53> <=5=8N, >A=>2>?>;030NI8< 4;O ;N1KE, 2 B>< G8A;5 8 =0CG=KE @0AAC645=89. $8;>A>DA:0O 35@<5=52B8:0 040<5@0 ?KB05BAO >?@545;8BL >1I85 CA;>28O ?>=8<0=8O.  8=B5@?@5B0F8N 4>:C<5=B>2 ?@>H;>3> 2A5340 2:;NG05BAO ?@54-?>=8<0=85  3@C7 =0H8E A>1AB25==KE ?@54AB02;5=89. A>7=0=85 @048:0;L=>9 8AB>@8G=>AB8 ?>=8<0=8O ?>72>;O5B >?@545;8BL AB5?5=L 2;8O=85 ?@54?>AK;>:, =0 >A=>25 :>B>@KE =0< ?@54AB02;ONBAO >1J5:BK. 040<5@ C:07K20;, GB> 35@<5=52B8G5A:>5 A>7=0=85 4>;6=> 1KBL 8AB>@8G5A:8 459AB2CNI8<. >=OB85 459AB25==>-8AB>@8G5A:>3> A>7=0=8O ?@54=07=0G5=> 2>2A5 =5 4;O @5H5=8O 2>?@>A0 > 3@0=8F0E >1J5:B82=>AB8 2 3C<0=8B0@=KE =0C:0E. 5GL 845B > ?@8@>45 ?>=8<0=8O 2> 2A5>1I5< >=B>;>38G5A:>< A<KA;5. 0?@8<5@, =5 B>;L:> <K 4>;6=K AC48BL 8AB>@8N, => 8 >=0 4>;6=0 2KABC?0BL <0AHB01>< >F5=:8 =0H8E 45O=89. >;57=> A?@0H820BL A51O: 0 A>>B25BAB2C5< ;8 <K 25;8G8N A2>8E ?@54:>2. 040<5@ ?8A0;: >=8<0=85 <>6=> <KA;8BL =5 B0: :0: 459AB28O AC1J5:B82=>AB8, 0 :0: 2>72@0I5=85 : B@048F88, 2 :>B>@>< ?@>H;>5 8 =0AB>OI55 ?>AB>O==> A>459AB2CNB 4@C3 4@C3C. -B> B>, GB> 4>;6=> ?@>O28BLAO 2 35@<5=52B8G5A:>9 B5>@88, 2 :>B>@>9 A;8H:>< 4>;3> 3>A?>4AB2>20;0 845O <5B>40.  A2>59 @01>B5 "AB8=0 8 <5B>4" 040<5@ ?@>B82>?>AB028; =0CG=><C >?KBC, F5;5@0F8>=0;L=>9 ?@0:B8:5 8 B5E=8G5A:><C <KH;5=8N  MB8< ";>:><>B820<" A>2@5<5==>9 F828;870F88  ?@0:B8G5A:85 C<5=8O 8 =02K:8 687=8, 74@02K9 A<KA;, O7K:, MAB5B8G5A:89 2:CA, 83@C, A>>1@078B5;L=>ABL 8 >1@07>20==>ABL.  $8;>A>DA:0O 35@<5=52B8:0, - ?8A0; 040<5@, - 2:;NG05B D8;>A>DA:>5 42865=85 =0H53> AB>;5B8O, ?@5>4>;52H55 >4=>AB>@>==NN >@85=B8@>2:C =0 D0:B =0C:8, :>B>@0O 1K;0 A0<> A>1>9 @07C<5NI59AO :0: 4;O =5>:0=B80=AB20, B0: 8 4;O ?>78B8287<0 B>3> 2@5<5=8. 4=0:> 35@<5=52B8:0 70=8<05B A>>B25BAB2CNI55 59 <5AB> 8 2 B5>@88 =0C:8, 5A;8 >=0 >B:@K205B 2=CB@8 =0C:8  A ?><>ILN 35@<5=52B8G5A:>9 @5D;5:A88  CA;>28O 8AB8=K, :>B>@K5 =5 ;560B 2 ;>38:5 8AA;54>20=8O, 0 ?@54H5AB2CNB 59.  =>340 3>2>@OB, GB> 040<5@ 2 >A=>25 A2>59 B@048F8>=0;8AB 8 :>=A5@20B>@. = G0AB> ?>4G5@:820; 206=>ABL ?@540=8O 8;8 B@048F88. > 1K;> 1K =5A?@0254;82> 3>2>@8BL, GB> >= O2;O5BAO :>=A5@20B82=K< ?@>B82=8:>< @0F8>=0;L=>3> <KH;5=8O, ?>B><C GB> AB028B ?>4 2>?@>A ?@>A25B8B5;LA:>5 >B=>H5=85 : B@048F88. ;O 040<5@0 B@048F8O 8<55B, ?> <5=LH59 <5@5, B@8 1>;LH8E 8 A?5F8D8G5A:8E 7=0G5=8O. >-?5@2KE, B@048F8O <>65B >7=0G0BL B@048F8>==>ABL 8 C:07K20BL =0 ?@55<AB25==>ABL 8;8 =5?@5@K2=>ABL, :>B>@0O 2A5340 ?@8ACBAB2>20;0, =0?@8<5@, 2 AB@>8B5;LAB25, 682>?8A8 8;8 <C7K:5. "@048F8O ?@>O2;O5BAO 2 :0G5AB25 =5?@5@K2=>AB8 8=B5@?@5B0F88, :>B>@0O 4>;6=0 ?@87=020BL 2AO:>5 ?>=8<0=85 8 ;N1K5 8=B5@?@5B0F88. >-2B>@KE, B@048F8O <>65B >7=0G0BL 25@=>5 A>45@60=85 ?@540=8O. ">340 3>2>@OB > B@048F88 =5 2 548=AB25==>< @>45, 0, A:>@55, > @07;8G=KE B@048F8OE 2> <=>65AB25==>< G8A;5. 040<5@ ?@8<5=O5B MB> 7=0G5=85, :>340 >=, : ?@8<5@C, CB25@6405B 206=>ABL B@048F88 :@0A=>@5G8O 2 35@<5=52B8G5A:>< ?>=8<0=88 B5:AB>2. 3> <KA;L A>AB>8B 2 B><, GB> B@048F88 2A5340 C65 3>2>@OB =0< =5GB> ?@5645, G5< <K =0G8=05< 3>2>@8BL > G5<-;81>. "@048F88 ?@8=F8?80;L=> >B:@KBK 4;O 4@C38E B@048F89 8 F5;5=0?@02;5==K 2 @073>2>@5 4@C3 A 4@C3><. -B@5BL8E, B@048F8O, ?> 040<5@C, >7=0G05B ?@87=0=85 02B>@8B5B0 8 53> 7=0=89.  MB>< A<KA;5 B@048F8O 4;O =0H53> ?>=8<0=8O >:07K205BAO, ?@5645 2A53>, 3>;>A>< 4@C3>3>, : :>B>@><C A;54C5B 1KBL 2A5340 >B:@KBK<. 040<5@ ?@>OA=O5B =5:>B>@K5 2>?@>AK, A2O70==K5 A B@C4=>ABO<8 >A2>5=8O B@048F88, :>340 >= ?8H5B >1 8AB>@8G5A:>< >?KB5 8 459AB25==>-8AB>@8G5A:>< A>7=0=88.  ?@>B82>25A B5<, :B> AG8B05B CA;>285< ?>AB865=8O 8AB>@88 =0;8G85 :0:>3>-B> ?>4>18O <0H8=K 2@5<5=8, 040<5@ ?>;0305B, GB> 2@5<5==0O 48AB0=F8O, A:>@55, ?@54?>AK;:0, G5< ?@5?OBAB285 4;O :>@@5:B=>3> 8AB>@8G5A:>3> ?>=8<0=8O. @5<5==0O 48AB0=F8O 8A:;NG05B A0<K5 1;87:89 8 2@54=K9 ?@54@0AAC4>: 8 D0:B8G5A:8 45;05B 1>;55 ;53:8< ?>=8<0=85 ?@>H;>3> A>1KB8O. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, =5 A;54C5B @07@CH0BL MBC 48AB0=F8N <5B>40<8 8AB>@8G5A:>3> 8AA;54>20=8O. AB>@8: =5 4>;65= >1<0=K20BL A51O 8 4@C38E, GB> <>6=> C7=0BL, :0: 2A5 1K;> 2 ?@>H;>< =0 A0<>< 45;5, 8 ?@87=0BL 8AB>@8G=>ABL A>1AB25==>3> ?>=8<0=8O. > =5 O2;O5BAO ;8 MB> =5:8< <O3:8< ?@87=0=85< =5A>AB>OB5;L=>AB8 8AB>@88 :0: =0C:8? B25B =0 MB>B 2>?@>A 405B B5>@8O "8AB>@8G5A:8-459AB25==>3> A>7=0=8O", A>3;0A=> :>B>@>9 8AB8==K9 8AB>@8G5A:89 ?@54<5B O2;O5BAO 2>2A5 =5 ?@54<5B><, => 548=AB2>< A2>53> 8 4@C3>3>  >B=>H5=85, 2 :>B>@>< :>@5=8BAO 459AB28B5;L=>ABL, :0: 8AB>@88, B0: 8 8AB>@8G5A:>3> ?>=8<0=8O. #4>2;5B2>@ONI0O D0:B0< 35@<5=52B8:0 ?@8720=0 2KO28BL 459AB28B5;L=>ABL 8AB>@88 2 A0<>< ?>=8<0=88. 5GL 845B > B><, GB> 040<5@ =07K20; "8AB>@859 2>7459AB289". 'B>1K >?@545;8BL B>G=55, :0: 8AB>@8G5A:>5 459AB2C5B 2 =0H5< 8AB>@8G5A:>< A>7=0=88, >= 225; ?>=OB85 A;8O=85 3>@87>=B>2. K 2A5340 8AB>@8G5A:8 A8BC8@>20=K 2 =0H5< ?>=8<0=88 8 >3@0=8G5=K 3>@87>=B><, 2 @0<:0E :>B>@>3> <K 8=B5@?@5B8@C5<. 1KG=> <K >3@0=8G5=K 2 3>@87>=B5 =0AB>OI53> A 53> ?@54@0AAC4:0<8, => <K 4>;6=K ?>=8<0BL, GB> 4065 =0AB>OI55 ?@8=04;568B : ?@540=8N. 5 ACI5AB2C5B 3>@87>=B0 =0AB>OI53> 2 A515 8 4;O A51O, :0: =5 ACI5AB2C5B 8AB>@8G5A:8E 3>@87>=B>2, :>B>@K5 =5 ?@8ACBAB2CNB, E>BO 1K 2 2845 A;54>2, 2 =0AB>OI5<.  35@<5=52B8:5 @5GL 845B >1 8A?>;=5=88 A;8O=8O 3>@87>=B>2, > 1>4@AB2>20=88 8AB>@8G5A:8 459AB2CNI53> ?>=8<0=8O, :>B>@>5 =5A5B >B25BAB25==>ABL 70 ?@8<5=5=85 8 8A?>;=5=85 B@048F89. >?>;=8B5;L=K9 <0B5@80; : 2>?@>AC @8B8:0 8 48A:CAA88. >A;5 2KE>40 :=838 040<5@0 @0725@=C;8AL H8@>:85 48A:CAA88, 2 E>45 :>B>@KE D8;>A>DA:0O 35@<5=52B8:0 :20;8D8F8@>20;0AL :0: :>=A5@20B82=0O ?>?KB:0 2>7@>645=8O 8AB>@8G5A:8E B@048F89 8 4065 ?@54@0AAC4:>2. # .. %015@<0A0 8 . ?5;O A><=5=85 2K7K20;8 =04564K =0 2>7<>6=>ABL A2>1>4=>3> 480;>30 8 =5?@8=C645==>3> @073>2>@0. 54L >=8 2>7<>6=K 2 ">B:@KB>< >1I5AB25", 8 =5 A;CG09=> 480;>3 2?5@2K5 A;>68;AO =0 ?>G25 ?>;8A=>9 45<>:@0B88 2 @5F88. '5< 30@0=B8@>20=0 25@0 040<5@0, GB> 548=AB2> 3>2>@OI8E 8 A;CH0NI8E AC1J5:B>2 4>AB8305BAO ?@8>1I5=85< : ACB8 45;0, 0 =5 =0A8;LAB25==K< ?CB5<? !8BC0F8O @0AF5=820;0AL =5>4=>7=0G=>. !AK;:0 =0 C15645=8O 8 25@>20=8O, A:;04K20NI85AO 2 E>45 8AB>@8G5A:>3> 1KB8O ;N459, AG8B05BAO =5:@8B8G5A:8< >?@0240=85< 70AB0@5;KE =>@< 8 >1KG052.  G0AB=>AB8, :@8B8G5A:85 @0F8>=0;8ABK AG8B0;8, GB> B0:85 C15645=8O 4>;6=K 1KBL ?>425@3=CBK 0=0;87C 8 >F5=:5 A> AB>@>=K =0CG=>9 >1I5AB25==>AB8. =8 ?>;030;8, GB> ?>;8B8G5A:85, M:>=><8G5A:85 8 ?@>G85 @5H5=8O 4>;6=K ?@8=8<0BLAO A CG5B>< B5E=8G5A:8E 2>7<>6=>AB59. 4=0:> B0:0O :@8B8:0 A0<0 =5 A2>1>4=0 >B 2>7@065=89: 2 >A=>25 "@0F8>=0;L=KE @5H5=89" >:07K20NBAO 8=B5@5AK ?@8=8<0NI8E 8E ;N459. !:5?A8A ?> >B=>H5=8N : =5@50;L=>9 ?5@5>F5=:5 @07C<0 ?> A@02=5=8N A M<>F8>=0;L=K<8 <>B820<8 G5;>25G5A:>9 4CH8, :>B>@K9 2KA:070; 040<5@, A53>4=O A?CABO 45 ;5B :065BAO 2?>;=5 >?@0240==K<. >=5G=>, 2 53> ?>78F88 A:@K20;0AL =5:>B>@0O ?@>B82>@5G82>ABL 8 =5?>A;54>20B5;L=>ABL. #:07K20O =0 =082=K9 >1J5:B8287< 5AB5AB25==>=0CG=>9 CAB0=>2:8, 040<5@ 2KO28; F5;CN A8AB5<C ?@54?>AK;>:, A:;04K20NI8EAO =0 ?>G25 8AB>@8G5A:>3> >?KB0 8 =5 :>=B@>;8@C5<KE =0CG=K<8 <5B>40<8 8 :@8B5@8O<8. "5< A0<K< ?>4=O; C@>25=L :@8B8G5A:>9 @5D;5:A88 =0 1>;LHCN 2KA>BC, G5< 0=0;8B8G5A:0O D8;>A>D8O 8;8 :@8B8:0 845>;>388. 4=0:> @0A:@KBK9 8< 687=5==K9 <8@ 8 459AB2CNI85 2 =Q< B@048F88 1K;8 >1JO2;5=K =5:8<8 5AB5AB25==> 8AB>@8G5A:8<8 >1@07>20=8O<8, A;>682H8<8AO 2 E>45 2K6820=8O ;N459 8 ?>MB><C =5 ?>4;560I8<8 @0F8>=0;L=>9 :@8B8:5. "5< A0<K< 040<5@ 40; ?>2>4 4;O C?@5:>2 2 :>=A5@20B87<5 8 4>3<0B87<5. >1@0O 2>;O : 2;0AB8. ;O >1>A=>20=8O C=825@A0;L=>AB8 A2>53> ?@>5:B0 040<5@ ?>ABC;8@>20; 2 4>:;045 "5:AB 8 8=B5@?@5B0F8O =0;8G85 C ;N459 4>1@>9 2>;8 : ?>=8<0=8N.  ?8AL<5==>< B5:AB5 2 >A=>2=>< ?@8=8<0NBAO 2> 2=8<0=85 B5 65 >A=>2>?>;030NI85 CA;>28O, GB> 8 2 @073>2>@5 CAB=><. 10 A;CG0O ?@54?>;030NB 4>1@CN 2>;N ?>=OBL 4@C3 4@C30. =0 ACI5AB2C5B 25745, 345 8ICB 2708<>?>=8<0=8O, ACI5AB2C5B 4>1@0O 2>;O. >?@>A <>65B 1KBL ;8HL > B><, =0A:>;L:> A8BC0F8O 8 55 8<?;8:0F88 C65 40=K, 5A;8 ?@54?>;0305BAO >?@545;5==K9 04@5A0B 8;8 ?@54?>;0305BAO, GB> B5:AB 4>;65= ?>=OBL 157K<O==K9 G8B0B5;L 8, B5< 1>;55, =5 ?>4@07C<5205<K9 B5:AB>< GC6>9. 0?8A0=85 ?8AL<0 2KABC?05B :0: 8=0O D>@<0 ?>?KB:8 @073>2>@0, 8 :0: 2 =5?>A@54AB25==>< O7K:>2>< :>=B0:B5 8;8 2> 2A5E @07K3@K205<KE ?@0:B8G5A:8E 687=5==KE A8BC0F8OE, B>;L:> ?@5?OBAB285 2 ?>=8<0=88 <>B828@C5B 8=B5@5A : 1C:20;L=><C A<KA;C A:070==>3>. > 2AO:>< A;CG05, ?8HCI89, :0: 8 3>2>@OI89, ?KB05BAO A>>1I8BL B>, GB> >= ?>4@07C<5205B, 8 MB> 2:;NG05B ?@5420@8B5;L=K9 273;O4 =0 4@C3>3>, A :>B>@K< >= 45;8B A2>8 ?@54?>;>65=8O 8 =0 GL5 ?>=8<0=85 >= @0AAG8BK205B. @C3>9 ?@8=8<05B A:070==>5, :0: MB> ?>4@07C<5205BAO, B.5. >= ?>=8<05B 1;03>40@O B><C, GB> 7025@H05B A:070==>5 8 :>=:@5B878@C5B 53>, 8 ?@8 MB>< =8G53> =5 2>A?@8=8<05B 2 53> 01AB@0:B=>< A<KA;>2>< A>45@60=88 1C:20;L=>. -B> B0:65 A;C68B >1JOA=5=85<, ?>G5<C 2 ?8AL<0E, 4065 5A;8 >=8 =0?@02;5=K ?0@B=5@C, :>B>@><C >G5=L 4>25@ONB, B5< =5 <5=55, =5:>B>@K5 25I8 2KA:07K20NB =5 B0:, :0: 2 =5?>A@54AB25==>9 15A545. =>3>5 87 B>3>, GB> 2K?0405B ?@8 ?8AL<5, ?5@5405BAO B>;L:> 2 =5?>A@54AB25==>AB8 @073>2>@0, B>;L:> 2 =5< 8<55BAO 2>7<>6=>ABL, >?8@0OAL =0 2>7@065=8O A>15A54=8:0, ?@>OA=8BL 8;8 70I8B8BL B>, GB> 8<5;>AL 2 284C. -B> E>@>H> 8725AB=> ?> A>:@0B8G5A:8< 480;>30< 8 ?;0B>=>2A:>9 :@8B8:5 ?8AL<5==>AB8. >3>A ?@54AB02;O5BAO 2K2545==K< 87 A8BC0F88 ?>=8<0=8O 2 ?8AL<5==>AB8, 81> 59 =54>AB05B A0<> A>1>9 @07C<5NI59AO :>@@5:B8@>2:8 682>3> @073>2>@0. BAN40 2KB5:05B ACI5AB25==>5 A;54AB285, F5=B@0;L=>5 4;O 35@<5=52B8G5A:>9 B5>@88. A;8 2 :0G5AB25 ?8HCI53> =5:B> 7=05B > ?@>1;5<0B8:5 B>3>, GB> ?>425@305BAO ?8AL<5==>9 D8:A0F88, B> >= >B2;5:05BAO >B 4@C3>3>, C :>B>@>3> AB@5<8BAO 4>AB8GL >A<KA;5==>3> ?>=8<0=8O. A;8 2 682>< @073>2>@5, 2 :>B>@>< ?>=8<0=8O AB@5<OBAO 4>AB83=CBL A ?><>ILN 0@3C<5=B>2 8 :>=B@0@3C<5=B>2, 8ICB A;>20 8 A>?@>2>640NB 8E 8=B>=0F859 8 65AB8:C;OF859, >6840O, GB> >=0 1C45B 2>A?@8=OB0 4@C38<, B> ?@8 ?8AL<5, :>B>@>5 =5 <>65B 8<5BL =8:0:>3> ?>4>1=>3> AB@5<;5=8O A>->1I8BL, ?>A:>;L:C >=> D8:A8@>20==>, B>;L:> G8B0B5;5< @0A:@K20NBAO 3>@87>=BK 8AB>;:>20=8O 8 ?>=8<0=8O. "0:8< >1@07><, ?8AL<> B>65 5ABL =5GB> 1>;LH55, G5< G8AB>5 D8:A8@>20=85 A:070==>3>. @0240, ?8AL<5==0O D8:A0F8O >BAK;05B >1@0B=> : ?5@2>=0G0;L=> A:070==><C, => >=0 4>;6=0 >4=>2@5<5==> 1@>A0BL 273;O4 8 2?5@54, B0: :0: 2A5 A:070==>5 C65 =0F5;5=> =0 ?>=8<0=85 8 A>45@68B >4=>2@5<5==> A2>5 8=>5. ">1@0O 2>;O : ?>=8<0=8N" AB0;0 >1J5:B>< :@8B8:8 A> AB>@>=K . 5@@840. 3> ?5@2K9 2>?@>A: =5 O2;O5BAO ;8 4>1@0O 2>;O : ?>=8<0=8N B5<, GB> %0945335@ =07K20; 1KB85< ACI53>  2>;OI59 AC1J5:B82=>ABLN? @C385 420 2>?@>A0 :0A0;8AL ?>4=OB>9 A@07C ?>A;5 2KE>40 :=838 040<5@0 "AB8=0 8 <5B>4" %015@<0A>< 8 ?5;5< ?@>1;5<K > =5>1E>48<>AB8 4>?>;=5=8O 35@<5=52B8:8 ?A8E>0=0;87>< 8 :@8B8:>9 845>;>388.  A2>5< 2KABC?;5=88 040<5@ >B=5AAO : MB><C 4>AB0B>G=> >AB>@>6=>, E>BO 8 =5 8A:;NG8; 2>2A5 B0:CN 2>7<>6=>ABL. 5@@840 70>AB@8; 2>?@>A, A?@>A82: =5 ?@82545B ;8 B0:>5 "4>?>;=5=85" : @048:0;L=> =>2>9 :>=AB@C:F88 8 =5 AB0=5B ;8 >=0 B>340 1;865 : 8FH5, 0 =5 : %0945335@C? 0:>=5F, 2?>;=5 ;8 4>AB0B>G=> >?8AK205B 35@<5=52B8:0 B>B A?5F8D8G5A:89 @07@K2 2 ?>=8<0=88 8 4>ABC? : :@C3C ?>=8<0=8O, :>B>@K9 8<55B <5AB> 2 A;CG0OE =52@>70 8 845>;>38G5A:>3> ?@>B82>AB>O=8O? >6=> CA8;8BL 2>?@>A: =5 @0A:@K20NB ;8 ?>4>1=K5 @07@K2K 8 D>@<K 8E ?@5>4>;5=8O A@54AB20<8 ?A8E80B@88, ?>;8F88, >1I5AB25==>3> 2>7459AB28O 8 B.?. D>@<0<8 ?@87=0=8O =5 :0:85-B> 0=><0;88, 0 A0<C ACBL 45;0, 2 B>< G8A;5 CA;>28O A0<>3> 35@<5=52B8G5A:>3> ?@87=0=8O. @87=0=85 4@C3>3> C 040<5@0 >:07K205BAO, ?@5645 2A53>, =@02AB25==K< 8 >=> 2545B : >=B>;>38G5A:><C ?@87=0=8N A2>5>1@078O CG0AB=8:>2 480;>30, :>B>@K5, A>E@0=OO A2>N C=8:0;L=>ABL, >1J548=ONBAO =5 ?@8=C645=85< 8 4065 =5 :>=A5=ACA><, 0 A0<>9 ACBLN 45;0, 2 :>B>@>9 >=8 2A5 708=B5@5A>20=K. 0 A0<>< 45;5 ACI5AB2CNB 4> :>=F0 =5 2KO2;5==K5 48AF8?;8=0@=K5?@54?>AK;:8 ?>=8<0=8O, :>B>@K5 >?@545;ONBAO @5?@5AA82=K< >?KB>< ?@87=0=8O. B25G0O =0 MB8 2>?@>AK 040<5@, 2K@078; A2>5 =54>C<5=85: 25@O 2 =0;8G85 4>1@>9 2>;8, >= CB25@640;, GB> ?>AB02;5==K5 2>?@>AK =5 @0AAG8B0=K =0 53> ?>=8<0=85 8 ?>MB><C O2;ONBAO =5:>@@5:B=K<8. 5@<5=52B8:0 8 B5>@8O ?>7=0=8O. > >@B8,, 35@<5=52B8:0 >?8@05BAO =0 "E>;8AB8G5A:>5" 4>:070B5;LAB2>, 2K@0605<>5 2 ?>=OB88 "35@<5=52B8G5A:>3> :@C30", A>3;0A=> :>B>@><C <K =5 <>65< ?>=OBL G0AB59 GC6>9 :C;LBC@K, ?@0:B8:8, O7K:0, B5>@88, ?>:0 =5 ?>9<5<, :0: MB> @01>B05B 2 F5;><, 8 2 B> 65 2@5<O =5 <>65< CA2>8BL @01>BC F5;>3>, =5 ?>=8<0O G0AB59. -B> ?>AB865=85 F5;>3> 1>;LH5 ?>E>65 =0 7=0:><AB2> A G5;>25:><, G5< =0 8AA;54>20=85. K 42865<AO >B A>1KB89 : 4>304:0<, ?>:0 =5 ?@8x ~  d v "$.tv ȴ|i]h=h=5CJaJ%h=h=B*CJaJmH phsH h=h=6CJNHaJh=h=6CJaJh=h=CJNHaJ!h=h=@B*CJaJph'h=h=56@B*CJaJphh=h=B*CJaJphh=h=CJaJmH sH h=h=CJaJh=h=CJOJQJaJ$  vx:, Ph"#$8&&'..$ & Fdha$gd= $dha$gd=h^hgd=:n((1112242d2|2338; <??$@@@xGzG\M^MZNfNfXhXghhƾƳ{lhQ6CJOJQJ^JaJ&hQhQ56CJOJQJ^JaJh "CJaJ!jh=h=0JCJUaJhIhICJaJh=hQCJaJh=CJaJhQCJaJh=h=B*CJaJphh=h=5CJaJh=h=6CJaJh=h=CJaJ$.j../1139?|GbMOhX^gghh$d`a$gd "$d`a$gdI$d`a$gd=$dh5$7$8$9DH$^a$gd=$ & Fdh5$7$8$9DH$a$gd= $dha$gd=hh6h:hw$xDyFyΛ$z||6JDBDD;^;N=P=R===~>>ͶʹͶͶͣqbqhQh=CJOJQJaJ)jhQh=0JCJOJQJUaJhQh=CJH*aJ!jhQh=0JCJUaJ hQh'CJOJQJ^JaJU-jhQh=0JCJOJQJU^JaJ hQh=CJOJQJ^JaJhQ6CJOJQJ^JaJ#hQh=6CJOJQJ^JaJ&h:h0qw(x~Z̛Λ֭~v $d`a$gd= d`gd=$d`a$gd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ildung) >@B8 2K18@05B "=0AB02;5=85" (edification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~>*?,??j@l@p@r@v@x@gd=gdQgdQ$d`a$gd=>,?.???j@l@n@r@t@x@z@~@@@@ؿ hQh'CJOJQJ^JaJjhb\Uhb\)jhQh=0JCJOJQJUaJhQh=CJOJQJaJx@|@~@@@@@gd=21h:p x. A!"R#n$n% j 666666666vvvvvvvvv66666>66666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~ OJPJQJ_HmHnHsHtHN`N =1KG=K9$CJOJPJQJ_HaJmHsHtHBA`B A=>2=>9 H@8DB 0170F0XiX 01KG=0O B01;8F04 l4a .k . 0 5B A?8A:0 h@h =  170F A?8A:0$d^a$m$CJOJPJQJaJtH >> ="5:AB A=>A:8 =0:tH2&@2 = =0: A=>A:8H*P@"P = "5:AB A=>A:8CJH*OJPJQJ^JaJX1X =0"5:AB A=>A:8 =0:1CJOJPJQJ^JaJtH:Z@B: ="5:ABCJOJQJ^JaJHQH = "5:AB =0:CJOJPJQJ^JaJtHFB@bF =A=>2=>9 B5:AB$a$CJaJZqZ =A=>2=>9 B5:AB =0:CJOJPJQJ^JaJtHPK![Content_Types].xmlj0Eжr(΢Iw},-j4 wP-t#bΙ{UTU^hd}㨫)*1P' ^W0)T9<l#$yi};~@(Hu* Dנz/0ǰ $ X3aZ,D0j~3߶b~i>3\`?/[G\!-Rk.sԻ..a濭?PK!֧6 _rels/.relsj0 }Q%v/C/}(h"O = C?hv=Ʌ%[xp{۵_Pѣ<1H0ORBdJE4b$q_6LR7`0̞O,En7Lib/SeеPK!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xml M @}w7c(EbˮCAǠҟ7՛K Y, e.|,H,lxɴIsQ}#Ր ֵ+!,^$j=GW)E+& 8PK!Ƶtheme/theme/theme1.xmlYnE#;8U i-qN3'JH DA\8 R>CW]{'ސ{g?x݈]"$q+_,y>8{7 K }xLވHe 2{Rܜaˋ??<ߟdžSr$L].<İT̟72S"ѵ_JwL&BJ05kZVyVy|xC OO|x>+<>@(:??/>5{yxFDdm 3^q5'=q6nib-$RB}}YGq=xK@;)^qbha79g . pUʹ;bbmc[$c'a}5KKfH5HL!ݦ&|mK{N6M6hq v|y 58+zH  *~ HHy\K*t@G>{sA}"))y sGfۡqǾ'w E1 [8>ܤ4Aбt׎~ls14_>,Ȭ7TT GqME=w-i>mo[oiBszbP:j5if F 9Pɉ* k\ A ;!N`.{I SցD p3˅5veU}AbvyA/g 氚 Z N+lR~aeԩj9&&CLgMʼn7a A0ƀHEA3~{q q1vƨl効9)>൜fN1N FIrdq8Y^:_73.|3 f%Jش?MOY s 3;} Rc0`d[鯠$ÿ - έhǴ"P 6T{TUٴ+9E28Y*MOt0O9Bݍqg7Ŕ9O)z?7#]u rBIHAאTpl>՟,SpT4@~BA%}'0+{eRF&rĪ#uu\{BHuM6`pG}N+!'_oN콶3a3dXZzCyCUɪ嶂ZZZ۱f,fAg-@`g v6V?Dhf6t=M&ʺ6ײ'݉#֚>d8s9xN=ڮjAv11;u2%M2oN1uo%տPK! ѐ'theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0wooӺ&݈Э5 6?$Q ,.aic21h:qm@RN;d`o7gK(M&$R(.1r'JЊT8V"AȻHu}|$b{P8g/]QAsم(#L[PK-![Content_Types].xmlPK-!֧6 +_rels/.relsPK-!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-!Ƶtheme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-! ѐ' theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK] "8}aaP=H h>@PRT.h x@@QSU8@0(  B S  ?SZ%9ktlwfs -4 jxYf%krz   !!"" &&{''4(;(4);),---0000555577C8J8AAAAlCsCCCLDVDYD_DDD#E*E?IFI JJ-J:JpLxLLLLLNNNNOPPPPP(Q7QeRlRnRsRRRSS>TCTWX%Y5Yo[[B\I\\] ^^^^^^__Sbbbhh3nBnarjrFwXw||/~<~~~R\ltʁShňIR|"*N]a|&8@PovǓԓghjq ;HX`/0\ghsĕ  ""-#3#####3(4(((/000ghh JS`SreC*h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h pL^p`LhH.h @ ^@ `hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h PL^P`LhH.hh^h`OJQJo(hH^`OJQJ^Jo(hHopp^p`OJQJo(hH@ @ ^@ `OJQJo(hH^`OJQJ^Jo(hHo^`OJQJo(hH^`OJQJo(hH^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoPP^P`OJQJo(hHBSrS`I`n@ ^`OJQJo(? "cOjYrYb\Xxz'= xiE TQlZLGIhj@lKppUnknownG*Ax Times New Roman5Symbol3. *Cx Arial7.@Calibri?= * Courier New;WingdingsA$BCambria Math"1hiS'iS'&B~K aLn0 3qHP $P=2!xx$$   Oh+'0 px  Normal2Microsoft Office Word@@D@D&B~՜.+,0 hp   Microsoft K     !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry FlEData 1Table`*WordDocument4HSummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjy  F' Microsoft Office Word 97-2003 MSWordDocWord.Document.89q